Revision: Punctuation Practices, Commas

10 comma rules in English

You already write in English, but sometimes you doubt where and when to put a comma in an English sentence? In our article we will set all commas!

In conversational speech, we pause or change the tone of our voice to give a meaningful accent. As for writing, punctuation means are used here to accentuate the reader’s attention. From this article you will learn how to correctly use commas in English.

First of all, remember the difference between the types of sentences in English:

  • An independent proposal is a complete stand-alone proposal, containing at least one subject and one phrase.
  • A dependent sentence is an incomplete sentence with a subject and a predicate that cannot exist by itself.

In English grammar, a comma is used to combine two independent proposals and manage unions (so, and, but, or, nor, for):

  • Studying English may seem hard, but it is pretty fascinating. – Studying English may seem difficult, but it is pretty fascinating.
  • I have repaired my car yesterday, so we will definitely use it for our journey soon. – I have repaired my car yesterday, so we will definitely use it for our journey soon.

After an introductory phrase, a sentence or a dependent sentence, you must also enter a comma:

  • To win the competition, Tom must train hard day and night. – To win the competition, Tom must train hard day and night.
  • Because my sister felt sick yesterday, we missed the last performance in the circus. – Yesterday, my sister felt sick, so we missed the last performance in the circus.
  • After the entrance, the entrants were quite exhausted and went home. – After the entrance exams, the entrants felt very exhausted and went home.

A comma is used to separate consecutive equivalent elements. Although there is no clearly defined rule in English grammar for separating the last element in a series, it is usually separated by a comma:

  • During his youth, Tom used to play football, tennis, cricket, and chess. – In his youth, Tom played football, tennis, cricket, and chess.
  • In search of pungent sensations some audacious men try alpinism, skydiving, parachute jumping, and parkour. – In search of pungent sensations some audacious men try alpinism, skydiving, parachute jumping, and parkour.

Use a comma to separate secondary fragments in the sentence that are not key to understanding the meaning of the whole sentence. For example:

When Mary failed to cook dinner herself, she ordered three wonderful big pizzas and nicely served big tables in the dining room. – When Mary failed to cook dinner herself, she ordered three wonderful big pizzas and delicately served a large table in the dining room.

If the sentence contains homogeneous and equivalent adjectives that can be rearranged, they must be separated by commas. Go to the site and find out morehttps://argoprep.com/blog/shsat/revision-punctuation-practices-commas/

  1. A dozen of dazzling racing cars were standing at the start ready to rush. – A dozen of dazzling racing cars were standing at the start ready to rush.
  2. The café we use to visit offers tasty, cheap lunch. – The café we use to visit offers tasty, cheap lunches.

Следующие элементы предложений также следует обособлять запятыми: кроме того, иными словами, окончательно, впрочем, поэтому, тем не менее, и иначе, вместо этого, разумеется, таким образом, прежде всего, например, в результате, с другой стороны, в заключение. Примеры:

  • So, the alpinist team finally reached the highest peak of the chain. – Thus, the alpinist team finally reached the highest peak of the chain.
  • Of course, Jane hoped to pass that hard exam at the first attempt. – Of course, Jane hoped to pass that hard exam at the first attempt.

You can’t do without commas in quotes, either:

“I broke”, Michael confessed. His brother took the broken vase, saying, “I will try to paste it up.” – “I broke,” Michael confessed. His brother took the broken vase and said: “I will try to paste it up.”
In the dates, the comma is used in the following way: “I will try to paste it up.

June 25, 1981.
Sunday, December 1, 2013
25 June 1981
When listing the names of a city and state, you should separate them with a comma:

Los-Angeles, California.
Detroit, Michigan
Names of personal nature are also separated by commas:

Frank Johnson, Senior Marketing Advisor, presented an overall and detailed report to the audience. – Frank Johnson, Senior Marketing Advisor, presented a complete and detailed report to the audience.
The so-called “semicolon bonding” (combining two independent proposals with a comma) should be avoided. In such cases it is better to use a semicolon, a semicolon or an associative union.